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Organizational Structures

- The influence of the organization, its structure, and culture have an effect on a project. These factors are called as Enterprise Environmental Factors.
- The Project Manager should be aware of different organizational structures, styles and cultures in order to apply / influence those to different projects effectively.
- Organizational Structures :
- Functional: Hierarchical, clear functional lines
- Matrix
-> Weak Matrix (project expediter / project coordinator)
-> Balanced Matrix
-> Strong Matrix (project manager)
- Projectized (project manager)
- Project Coordinators powerful than project expediters with relevance to decision-making but both of them report to a functional manager.
- Balanced matrix organizations have a project manager designation but the PM reports to a functional manager.
- Strong matrix organizations have a separate hierarchy for project management but the managers use members from functional team.
- Projectized organizations either do not have functional departments or functional departments play support roles. Managers and teams are allocated for separate projects.
- A composite organization has both the characteristics of projectized and functional organization.

Project Lifecycles

- Projects pass through different phases to closure. The phases, determined as part of the project lifecycle provide better ways to track the project progress and can vary based on the application area and level of control needed.
- Project lifecycles:
- Predictive
- Adaptive
- In case of Predictive lifecycles, product scope is known right in the beginning and changes are carefully managed all through the lifecycle. Scope , time and cost are freezed early on.
- In case of Adaptive lifecycles, product scope gets elaborated with each phase and scope for the phase is defined at the start of that particular phase.
- In case of Iterative and incremental lifecycles, an iteration repeats the same set of phases in a cycle while an increment is concerned with adding more functionality or elaborating the project’s deliverable.
- Cost and Staffing levels peak during project execution phase.
- Risk and uncertainty are greatest at the start of the project.
- Cost of making changes increases as project reaches completion.
- The ability of stakeholders to influence the project outcomes is higher in the beginning.
- Adaptive lifecycles are followed to keep the stakeholder influences higher and the cost of changes lower.

Phase-to-Phase Relationships

- Sequential relationship: The next phase starts only after completion of previous phase. Risk is less but schedule cannot be compressed.
- Overlapping relationship: The next phase overlaps the previous phase in the sense that the next phase starts before the previous phase completes. Risk is higher but schedule compression techniques can be used.
- Phase End is called as stage gate, phase gate, milestone or killpoint.

Match the Following

1. Adaptive lifecycles - a. Higher Staffing level
2. Predictive lifecycles - b. Agile method
3. Overlapping relationship – c. Lower risk
4. Sequential relationship - d. Phase Exit
5. Stage gate – e. Fast tracking
6. Work Execution – f. Fully Plan-driven

Match the Following (Answers)

1. Adaptive lifecycles - b. Agile method
2. Predictive lifecycles - f. Fully Plan-driven
3. Overlapping relationship – e. Fast tracking
4. Sequential relationship - c. Lower risk
5. Stage gate – d. Phase Exit
6. Work Execution – a. Higher Staffing level