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- Project Stakeholders are individuals , groups or organizations having vested interest in the final outcome of the project. They have a certain amount of interest and involvement in the project.
- They might positively or negatively impact the project outcome.
- To ensure project success, it is necessary to identify the key stakeholders early-on in the project. It also necessary to revisit the stakeholder list as the project passes through different phases during its lifecycle.
- It is also necessary to classify stakeholders according to their power and project interest levels so that key project communications can reach them and their support is sought at necessary points.
- Customers, sponsors, project team, performing organization, seller are all examples of stakeholders.


- Project Charter: This has the high-level details including the initial list of stakeholders useful in identifying the complete project stakeholder list.
- Procurement Documents: Procurement is an important process that warrants attention in identifying key stakeholders relevant to the project. Project work involving procurement is of high risk so, identify stakeholders process plays a vital role in warding off such risks.
- Enterprise Environmental Factors: If the project involves legal approvals or is government-based, then enterprise environmental factors play a key role in deciding the project function.
- Organizational Process Assets: Like any other process, knowledge, templates or experiences gained from previous similar projects regarding stakeholders are useful to this process. E.g., Stakeholder register template.

Tools & Techniques

- Stakeholder Analysis: Deciding on stakeholder influence, power and involvement needs detailed analysis of organization structure and organization culture and working style. The proper analysis will decide on project success. The following are some of the classification models:
> Power/interest grid: a graphing methodology that plots the stakeholder power against his interest. Based on what quadrant the stakeholder falls, project decisions like involvement or sign-off can be made.
> Power/influence grid: a graphing methodology that plots the stakeholder power against his influence. Useful in influencing the organization at right points like, making the end-users utilize the product developed while they have been accustomed to an existing product.
> Influence/impact grid: What impact can a particular stakeholder can cause keeping his influence in mind.
> Salience model: Capturing different other features of the stakeholder with relevance to the project like, true interest, ability to impose will etc.
- Meetings: Meetings with different stakeholders to understand their interest and involvement apart from what role they play in the project or the organization as such.
- Expert Judgment: Seeking involvement from external managers or other organization units involved in similar project situations previously.


- Stakeholder Register: The list of stakeholders - name, address along with their contact information, designation and their interest and involvement levels, stakeholder classification like internal , external, buyer or seller relevant to the project.

Match the Following

1. Stakeholder Register - a. Stakeholder Analysis
2. Input - b. Stakeholder Register
3. Technique - c. Project Charter
4. Output - d. List of Stakeholders

Match the Following (Answers)

1. Stakeholder Register - d. List of Stakeholders
2. Input - c. Project Charter
3. Technique - a. Stakeholder Analysis
4. Output - b. Stakeholder Register