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- This process deals with determining the approach and the process for planning project communications.
- It involves an analysis of different project stakeholders, their communication requirements, access to communication technologies, type and sensitivity of message all play a role while planning the project communications.
- As with all other planning processes, PM Plan plays a vital role in not only taking care of other project objectives but also developing the communication management plan during the initial stages. The organizational process assets and enterprise environmental factors are used since this is a planning process.


- PM Plan: Holds details about other planning processes to factor-in during project communications planning.
- Stakeholder Register: Holds the different project stakeholders and how they are dispersed geographically and also their power and influence in order to look at what will be the communication frequency and deciding on an appropriate communication method.
- Enterprise Environmental Factors: Organization structure, hierarchy and organizational influence on the project - all play vital role in this process.
- Organizational Process Assets: Historical information and prior lessons learnt.

Tools & Techniques

- Communications Requirement Analysis: What are the different stakeholders' influence, power and communication requirements to address appropriately in the plan.
- Communication Models: Communication models facilitate exchange of message and may vary from project phase-to-phase. The following are components of a communication model -
>Sender: One who encodes and sends the message and responsible to ensure that the message is clear and complete.
>Receiver: One who receives and decodes the message and responsible to ensure that the message is understood and then encodes and sends a feedback to the sender.
>Medium: The communication channel used to transfer messages.
>Noise: Anything that is a disturbance or barrier in transmission or communication. Might take the form of cultural differences, unfamiliar technology, distance etc.
Communication Model Steps:
>Encode: The sender converts his thoughts into language.
>Transmit Message: The encoded message is sent through a channel or medium.
>Decode: The receiver interprets the message and converts into thoughts based on his understanding.
>Acknowledge: The receiver acknowledges the receipt of message but this does not mean comprehension of message.
>Feedback/Response: When the message is comprehended, the receiver encodes the thoughts and sends the response back to the sender.
- Communication methods: Here are different methods to share information among stakeholders -
>Interactive: Team meetings, face-to-face meetings wherein it is possible to interpret if the sender and receiver are in synch in terms of understanding what is being discussed.
>Push Communication: When the message is intended to a specific receiver but then, feedback or understanding is not important. E.g., memo, mail, email, blog, press release.
>Pull Communication: For large audiences, to share large volumes of information. Good examples are intranet or e-learning sites, wherein people go and check rather than message reaching them specifically.
- Communication technology: The following factors play a vital role in deciding the technology :
1. Ease of Use of the technology
2. Confidentiality of the message transmitted
3. Availability of the technology
4. Message Urgency
5. Project Environment
- Meetings: Discussions with different stakeholders to understand and analyze the communication requirements and to decide on proper technology and method for communication.


- Communications Management Plan: Based on the stakeholder communication requirement analysis, decision on communication method and technology is made. The plan holds the communication process and details about different tools and techniques appropriate to the project context. The plan holds responsible person for communication, information , frequency of communication, escalation process, resources allocated, process to refine the communication management plan as project progresses.
- Project Documents Update: Updates to other plan-related documents like schedule as the communication management plan gets developed.

Match the Following

1. Communication Management Plan - a. Language to thoughts
2. Encode - b. Comprehended response
3. Decode - c. Lack of information background
4. Noise - d. Thoughts to language
5. Feedback– e. Escalation Process

Match the Following (Answers)

1. Communication Management Plan - e. Escalation Process
2. Encode - d. Thoughts to language
3. Decode - a. Language to thoughts
4. Noise - c. Lack of information background
5. Feedback– b. Comprehended response