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Introduction


- Since delivering the project requirements is not only concerned with meeting the customer requirements but also ensuring that all the requirements are met as per customer expectations and that defects do not get into the hands of customer, project quality management is identified as a knowledge area in the PMBOK.
- Poor quality means dissatisfied customers and as a result loss of reputation and loss of further business. So, once the stakeholders are identified and the requirements are collected, one of the next processes aimed at is to develop the quality management plan starting off with outlining the quality principle and quality standards with proper SLAs, facts and figures.
- The plan quality management process deals with determining what quality standards are relevant to the project and ensuring that those standards are being met by the project's process anytime during execution.
- The metrics that would be measured and the checklists that would be followed are all determined as part of this process.
- In case if there are any deviations in the product's quality based on existing metrics collected, then the process is controlled to adhere to the standards.
- The tools and techniques for adherence and quality control are decided as part of this process along with reasoning out why quality needs to be managed and what business (tangible / intangible) impacts poor quality can cause.

Inputs


- Project Management Plan: This is the base plan from which other plans are elaborated. So, this is used to start off the quality planning process. Also, this has the other baselines, like Scope, Cost and Schedule.
- Stakeholder Register - Factoring all stakeholder needs and their power and influence to come up with the quality standards.
- Risk register - What risks will affect the quality or customer requirements and factoring those into the quality standards.
- Requirement Documentation - What are the customer requirements because good quality means satisfying customer requirements.
- Organizational Process Assets (OPA) - Reuse prior experience or templates to come up with the project quality policy and standards.
- Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEF) - What external factors will affect the framing of project quality standards.

Tools & Techniques


- Meetings: The forum to understand the customer expectations and also build a plan based on the customer requirements. Can involve other key stakeholders.
- Cost-Benefit Analysis: What is the cost-benefit ratio when aiming for 100% availability of the system when weekend support is going to be costly and the application will not at all be used over the weekend. So, such weighing of options is done as part of elaborating the quality management plan or coming up with the quality processes for the project.
- Cost of Quality: Cost of conformance and non-conformance to quality are validated and factored-in to ensure that the quality management plan covers the required processes.
- Seven Basic Quality Tools: These tools are selected and used across the different quality processes for quality assurance or quality control -
> Cause and Effect Diagram: Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram used to find an assignable cause to a problem statement.
> Flowcharts: Identifying the flow of the process and also checking complexity or cost involved to implement.
> Check sheets: Usually used to collect data and construct a frequency distribution later.
> Pareto Diagrams: 80-20 concept to identify, in a total of 100, what is the most common type of problem that can resolve many of the issues.
> Histogram: Pareto Charts are special type of histograms. Used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution.
> Control Charts: Used to determine if a process is stable. Upper and lower control limits are set and data is plotted to see if there is any consistent deviation from the limits.
-> A process is considered out of control when: (1) a data point exceeds a control limit; (2) seven consecutive plot points are above the mean; or (3) seven consecutive plot points are below the mean.
> Scatter Diagrams: Independent variable is plotted against a dependent variable to analyze correlation.
- Benchmarking: An important technique in quality management process to compare one process with another and suggest improvements.
- Design of Experiments: Used to determine what factors might affect the product’s quality. Useful in determining the type of tests needed and their Cost of Quality. For example, automotive designers use this technique to determine which combination of suspension and tires will produce the most desirable ride characteristics at a reasonable cost.
- Statistical Sampling: Taking a sample of the population to determine if the population is good in meeting the quality requirements.
- Additional Quality Planning Tools:
> Brainstorming
> Force Field Analysis
> Nominal Group Technique
> Quality Management and Control Tools

Outputs


- Quality Management Plan: This details about how the organization’s quality policy or the customer’s expectations will be met. Needs an early review in order to reduce rework.
- Process Improvement Plan: All through the project life cycle, it is necessary to revisit the existing process and do continuous improvement. This plan takes care of such frequency and approach.
- Quality Metrics: What metrics will be captured to decide on project quality. on-time performance, cost control, defect frequency, failure rate, availability, reliability, and test coverage.
- Quality Checklists: What parameters will be checked as part of Quality Assurance process. Quality checklists should incorporate the acceptance criteria included in the scope baseline.
- Project Document Updates: While quality baseline is decided, associated documents like schedule or risk register can also get updated.

Match the Following


1. Pareto Chart – a. Automotive Design Technique
2. Statistical Sampling – b. Bar chart
3. Design of Experiments – c. Sample and Population
4. Histogram – d. Independent v/s Dependent variable
5. Control Chart – e. 80-20 Concept
6. Scatter Diagram – f. Specification Limits

Match the Following (Answers)


1. Pareto Chart – e. 80-20 Concept
2. Statistical Sampling – c. Sample and Population
3. Design of Experiments – a. Automotive Design Technique
4. Histogram – b. Bar chart
5. Control Chart – f. Specification Limits
6. Scatter Diagram – d. Independent v/s Dependent variable