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Introduction


- The Sequence Activities process is concerned with interlinking the activities in the activity list.
- The output of the sequence activities process is the project network diagram and the objective is to come up with different possibilities of linkage between activities.
- In many projects, activity listing, sequencing, duration estimating, resource allocation are all done as part of scheduling.
- Activities are linked to predecessors using finish-to-start or start-to-start relationship while to successors using finish-to-start or finish-to-finish relationships.

Inputs


- Schedule Management Plan: This has the basic process of how-to come up with the activity network diagram like the basic category of relationships and what leads / lags to add.
- Activity List: This has the list of project activities to be linked.
- Activity Attributes: A detailed description for each of the activities and any other details needing attention for further processes.
- Milestone List: Activities have a duration attached but milestones have zero duration but they must be present in the network diagram.
- Scope Statement: While outlining the relationships it is necessary to beware of the boundaries at least until the schedule is ready.
- Enterprise Environmental Factors: The constraints under which the organization is performing. Any vacations needing to be accounted.
- Organizational Process Assets: Templates for creating network diagrams or lessons learnt from previous similar projects, if any.

Tools & Techniques


- Precedence Diagramming Method: Activity On Node is method used by Project Management Software to represent dependencies. Dependencies between predecessor and successor activities are represented as follows –
> Finish-to-Start
> Finish-to-Finish
> Start-to-Start
> Start-to-Finish
For instance, in case of Start-to-Finish relationship, the successor activity can finish only after predecessor’s start.
In PDM, Finish-to-Start is the mostly commonly used relationship.
- Dependency Determination: The process of determining which activity precedes or succeeds which one is an important technique used in coming up with the network diagram. The dependencies are classified into 4 types -
> Mandatory Dependencies: Also called as hard logic wherein one activity can be taken up only after another has been finished.
> Discretionary Dependencies: Also called as soft or preferred logic wherein two activities can be taken up in parallel.
> Internal Dependencies: Anything related to project environment and can be controlled by the project team.
> External Dependencies: Anything related to external environment like, government regulations, laws.
- Leads and Lags: What amount of waiting time must be given before the activity start or after activity finish respectively. The lead time is waiting time before an activity starts while lag time is waiting time after an activity has completed.


Outputs


- Project Schedule Network Diagrams: The final diagram linking activities of a project from one to another accounting for leads and lags and all the dependencies involving project constraints.
- Project Document Updates: Since project scheduling is considered as an iterative approach, certain updates to activity list or attributes might happen for further use during creation of final schedule or estimating activity durations.

Match the Following


1. PDM - a. Sequence Activities Output
2. Project Network Diagram - b. Finish-to-Start
3. Milestone list - c. Sequence Activities Technique
4. Dependencies Determination - d. Sequence Activities Input
5. Mandatory Dependencies – e. Environmental Factors
6. External Dependencies – f. Hard Logic

Match the Following (Answers)


1. PDM - b. Finish-to-Start
2. Project Network Diagram - a. Sequence Activities Output
3. Milestone list - d. Sequence Activities Input
4. Dependencies Determination - c. Sequence Activities Technique
5. Mandatory Dependencies – f. Hard Logic
6. External Dependencies – e. Environmental Factors